Introduction to Motion

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In Physics, motion is defined as the change in the position of an object over a period of time. The mathematical description of motion involves terms such as distance, displacement, acceleration, speed, velocity, and time. In this article we will understand the basics of motion and laws associated with motion.

Laws of Motion

It is said that there are two sets of laws of mechanics that describe the motion of massive bodies. In classical mechanics, the motion of larger objects such as planets, humans, vehicles, and projectiles are considered. The other set of laws is explained with the help of quantum mechanics. This involves motion of atomic and subatomic objects.

Following are the three laws of motion given by Sir Isaac Newton:

  • First law of motion states that the object will either remain at rest or in uniform motion unless acted upon by a force.
  • Second law of motion states that the force of an object is the product of its mass and acceleration.
  • Third law of motion states that for every action there is an equal and opposite reaction.

The motion of an object could be either in one-dimensional, two-dimensional, or three-dimensional. These are known as equations of motion. These equations of motion can be derived by graphical method, calculus method, and algebraic method.

What is Equation of Motion

Equation of motion is defined as the set of equations that describe the behavior of the physical system in terms of motion with respect to time.

Following are the three equations of motion:

  • v = u + at
  • s = ut + ½ at2
  • v2 = u2 + 2as

Types of Motion

There are four different types of motion, and they are as follows:

  • Translational motion
  • Rotational motion
  • Periodic motion
  • Non-periodic motion

Translational Motion

In this type of motion, all the parts of the body move in the same direction. For instance, moving of a car, cycling, etc. Rectilinear and non-rectilinear are the types of translational motion. When an object moves along the straight line in a translational motion, it is known as rectilinear motion. While an object moving along the curved path in a translational motion, it is known as non-rectilinear motion.

Rotational Motion

When an object moves about its axis of motion, it is known as rotational motion. The merry-go-around is an example of rotational motion. In this motion, not all parts move in the same direction for a given time period.

Periodic Motion

When the motion repeats itself after equal intervals of time is known as periodic motion. The ticking of hands in the clock is an example of periodic motion.

Non-periodic Motion

When the motion does not repeat itself after equal intervals of time is known as the non-periodic motion. The flying of birds is an example of non-periodic motion.

These were the basics of motion. To learn more about the terms associated with motion such as displacement, velocity, speed, acceleration, etc, visit BYJU’S. Also, learn concepts such as Beer-Lamber law which states for a given substance, the path length of the sample and the concentration are directly proportional to the absorbance of the light.

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